Medetomidine HCI 5ml - 20mg/ml
Medetomidine and its analog detomidine were developed within the research arm of Farmos of Turku, Finland in the 1970s. Farmos was subsequently acquired by Orion of Helsinki. After commercialization in Scandinavia, medetomidine quickly found applications in non-domestic species. Dr. Harry Jalanka of the Helsinki Zoo conducted pioneering research in the use of medetomidine in zoo and free-ranging wildlife, laying the foundation for expansion into other species. Medetomidine was approved in the US in 1995 under the trade name of Domitor.
Indications: Wildlife Management
Medetomidine is routinely used in combination with the dissociative ketamine. The combination of this potent alpha-two agonist and ketamine allows the immobilization of most non-domestic species, characterized by an animal that is very manageable and in a good state of analgesia.
Its high potency as an alpha-two agonist has made this drug useful in designing non-opiate combinations that can be used to capture free-ranging species. In the field, the use of medetomidine in combination with ketamine, butorphanol, and azaperone provides a reversible non-opiate combination that produces a satisfactory level of analgesia and muscle relaxation.
Medetomidine combined with ketamine has found new applications in cervids, large felids, mustelids, and bear in North America. Its high potency has allowed the capture of free-ranging wildlife that were refractory to xylazine after being chased by vehicles or aircraft. Its concentration to 20 mg/ml has made it useful in dart delivery.
Indications in Domestic Species
Medetomidine hydrochloride is routinely used in dogs.
Medetomidine is 10% more potent than xylazine and has a higher alpha-two agonist receptor affinity which produces sedation and analgesia. These effects are dose dependent in depth and duration. Medetomidine provides pharmacological restraint and pain relief to facilitate the handling of animals for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, and minor surgical procedures. Spontaneous muscle contractions may be seen in some animals sedated with medetomidine.
Medetomidine hydrochloride chemically is -4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl) ethyl] -1H-imidazole monohydrochloride.
Blood pressure is initially increased due to peripheral vasoconstriction and then drops to normal or slightly lower than normal. Bradycardia can be prevented by IV administration of an anticholinergic agent.
Recommended route of administration is deep intramuscular injection.
The dose range for medetomidine in non-domestic species is wide and variable. In combination with ketamine in North American Cervidae, the dose can vary from 30mcg/kg to 80mcg/kg. Professionals are advised to refer to the Handbook of Wildlife Chemical Immobilization and the current published literature for the best information on the species, dose, and combinations that have been effective in field and clinical use.
Medetomidine may be administered intravenously and /or intramuscularly. In wildlife, dart or other remote delivery is the method for intramuscular injection. Following injection with medetomidine or medetomidine combinations, the animal should be allowed to rest quietly for at least 15 minutes post achieving sternal recumbency, as long as the animal is in a safe position and environment.
Medetomidine was approved by FDA in a 1mg/ml concentration. It is available in 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 40 mg/ml strengths, compounded by ZooPharm upon prescription in the United States.
Medetomidine hydrochloride should NOT be used in animals with the following conditions: cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney diseases; animals in shock, animals which are severely debilitated, or animals which are stressed due to extreme heat, cold or fatigue.